Fracture strength and fatigue endurance in Gd-doped ceria thermal actuators

Eran Mishuk, Andrei Ushakov, Jenny Shklovsky, Slava Krylov, Yosi Shacham-Diamand, Vladimir Ya Shur, Andrei Kholkin, Igor Lubomirsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We studied the stability of the mechanical properties and the fatigue endurance of Gd-doped ceria (CGO), which is a promising electromechanically active material for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Specifically, the fracture strength and long-term operation of plate-type circular (2 mm diameter) thermal actuators made of ≈1.15 μm thick Ce0.95Gd0.05O1.975 (CGO5) were investigated. Excitation voltage of 10 V at the frequency range between 1 and 2.1 MHz induces Joule heating effect that can generate an in-plane strain of ≈0.1 %. The operation temperature ranged from 25 °C to 80 °C and the temperature shift, caused by the AC heating, was about 80 K at 10 V. Critical fracture was found to occur at out-of-plane displacements between ∼35 and ∼42 μm, which corresponds to the average bending stress of ∼44 MPa at the center of the plate. During long-term operation, the actuators exhibit gradual decrease in the response, probably due to contact degradation. However, structural damage or mechanical fatigue was not found even after 107 cycles at a stress level of ∼30 % of the critical fracture strength.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111885
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2020


  • Actuator
  • Doped ceria
  • Fatigue
  • MEMS


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