Forty Years Later: Long-Term Consequences of Massive Traumatization as Manifested by Holocaust Survivors From the City and the Kibbutz

Arie Nadler*, Dan Ben-Shushan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The present study explored the differences between male and female Holocaust survivors (n = 34) and controls (n = 34) who were similar to the survivors but had not been victims of the Holocaust. Half of the respondents were from the city and the other half were from the Kibbutz. The main dependent measures included the CAQ, the TSCS, and a specially designed Centrality of Family scale. Survivors were worse off psychologically than comparison individuals on the quality of emotional life, on emotional expression, and on the quality of interpersonal relations. Also, survivors assigned relatively greater value to their postwar families. City survivors seem to be worse off than Kibbutz survivors, and male survivors from the city had the lowest scores on several key subscales. These data were corroborated and extended by a content analysis of an open-ended interview conducted after the objective measures had been completed. The findings and their implications for understanding the effects of massive traumatization over individuals' life cycles are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287-293
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Volume57
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1989

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