Fluorescent Multifunctional Organic Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery and Bioimaging: A Tutorial Review

Guillem Vargas-Nadal, Mariana Köber, Audrey Nsamela, Francesca Terenziani, Cristina Sissa*, Silvia Pescina*, Fabio Sonvico, Amirah Mohd Gazzali, Habibah A. Wahab, Luca Grisanti, María Eugenia Olivera, María Celeste Palena, María Laura Guzman, Laura Carolina Luciani-Giacobbe, Alvaro Jimenez-Kairuz, Nora Ventosa, Imma Ratera, Kevin D. Belfield, Ben M. Maoz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) are a large family of nanostructures constituted by organic components that emit light in different spectral regions upon excitation, due to the presence of organic fluorophores. FONs are of great interest for numerous biological and medical applications, due to their high tunability in terms of composition, morphology, surface functional-ization, and optical properties. Multifunctional FONs combine several functionalities in a single nanostructure (emission of light, carriers for drug-delivery, functionalization with targeting ligands, etc.), opening the possibility of using the same nanoparticle for diagnosis and therapy. The prepa-ration, characterization, and application of these multifunctional FONs require a multidisciplinary approach. In this review, we present FONs following a tutorial approach, with the aim of providing a general overview of the different aspects of the design, preparation, and characterization of FONs. The review encompasses the most common FONs developed to date, the description of the most important features of fluorophores that determine the optical properties of FONs, an overview of the preparation methods and of the optical characterization techniques, and the description of the theoretical approaches that are currently adopted for modeling FONs. The last part of the review is devoted to a non-exhaustive selection of some recent biomedical applications of FONs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2498
JournalPharmaceutics
Volume14
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2022

Funding

FundersFunder number
Marie Skłodowka-Curie
Severo Ochoa Program for Centers of Excellence in R&DSEV-2015-0496, CEX2019-000917-S, PID2019-105622RB-I00
National Science FoundationEFMA-2203704
National Institutes of HealthR21AA028340
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme101007804
H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions812780
Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación

    Keywords

    • FONs manufacturing
    • bioimaging
    • drug delivery
    • fluorescence
    • fluorescence microscopy
    • fluorophores
    • organic nanoparticles
    • theoretical simulations of nanoparticles

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