Fluctuation theorem for heat transport probed by a thermal probe electrode

Y. Utsumi, O. Entin-Wohlman, A. Aharony, T. Kubo, Y. Tokura

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We analyze the full-counting statistics of the electric heat current flowing in a two-terminal quantum conductor whose temperature is probed by a third electrode ("probe electrode"). In particular we demonstrate that the cumulant-generating function obeys the fluctuation theorem in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The analysis is based on the scattering matrix of the three-terminal junction (comprising the two electronic terminals and the probe electrode), and a separation of time scales: it is assumed that the rapid charge transfer across the conductor and the rapid relaxation of the electrons inside the probe electrode give rise to much slower energy fluctuations in the latter. This separation allows for a stochastic treatment of the probe dynamics, and the reduction of the three-terminal setup to an effective two-terminal one. Expressions for the lowest nonlinear transport coefficients, e.g., the linear-response heat-current noise and the second nonlinear thermal conductance, are obtained and explicitly shown to preserve the symmetry of the fluctuation theorem for the two-terminal conductor. The derivation of our expressions, which is based on the transport coefficients of the three-terminal system explicitly satisfying the fluctuation theorem, requires full calculations of vertex corrections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number205314
JournalPhysical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Issue number20
StatePublished - 22 May 2014


FundersFunder number
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science26400390, 21102003


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