Flexible Cystoscopy in the Setting of Macroscopic Hematuria: Do the Findings Justify Its Use?

Reuben Ben-David*, Samuel Morgan, Ziv Savin, Snir Dekalo, Mario Sofer, Avi Beri, Ofer Yossepowitch, Roy Mano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Patients hospitalized due to gross hematuria frequently complete evaluation in the outpatient setting. The use of office flexible cystoscopy during hospitalization may lead to prompt diagnosis and treatment but can be limited due to low visualization and artifacts that can hamper diagnostic ability. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess flexible cystoscopy findings and yield performed in patients hospitalized due to gross hematuria. Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent flexible cystoscopy while hospitalized during September 2018-December 2019 were reviewed. Cystoscopic findings were categorized into (1) suspicious mass in the bladder or prostate, (2) nonsuspicious changes in the bladder, and (3) nondiagnostic exam. Descriptive statistics were used to report the clinical characteristics of the study cohort and the findings of cystoscopy. Univariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of malignant findings. Results: The study cohort consisted of 69 patients (median age of 76 years). Initial cystoscopy findings were suspicious for malignancy in 26/69 patients (38%), nonsuspicious for malignancy in 34/69 patients (49%), and nondiagnostic in 9/69 patients (13%). The median follow-up time was 9 months (range 4-14 months). Twenty patients (29%) were diagnosed with malignancy (sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 78%). The procedure led to either diagnosis or treatment of 39 patients (57%). However, in 30 patients (43%), the initial cystoscopy did not aid in the diagnosis, led to misdiagnoses, or required a follow-up cystoscopy. On univariate analyses, none of the precystoscopy variables were predictive of bladder malignancy. Conclusion: Flexible cystoscopy in the setting of acute hematuria requiring hospitalization did not lead to diagnosis or treatment in over 40% of cases. In this setting, consideration should be given to performing an upfront cystoscopy under anesthesia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-153
Number of pages7
JournalUrologia Internationalis
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • Cystoscopy
  • Hematuria
  • Urinary bladder neoplasms
  • Urological diagnostic techniques


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