Fitusiran prophylaxis in people with severe haemophilia A or haemophilia B without inhibitors (ATLAS-A/B): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial

Alok Srivastava*, Savita Rangarajan, Kaan Kavakli, Robert Klamroth, Gili Kenet, Liane Khoo, Chur Woo You, Weiqun Xu, Niel Malan, Laurent Frenzel, Catherine N. Bagot, Oleksandra Stasyshyn, Chia Yau Chang, Stacey Poloskey, Zhiying Qiu, Shauna Andersson, Baisong Mei, Steven W. Pipe

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Fitusiran, a subcutaneous investigational siRNA therapeutic, targets antithrombin with the goal of rebalancing haemostasis in people with haemophilia A or haemophilia B, regardless of inhibitor status. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fitusiran prophylaxis in people with severe haemophilia without inhibitors. Methods: This multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 study was conducted at 45 sites in 17 countries. Male participants aged at least 12 years with severe haemophilia A or B without inhibitors, who had previously been treated on-demand with clotting factor concentrates, were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive 80 mg subcutaneous fitusiran prophylaxis once per month or to continue on-demand clotting factor concentrates for a total of 9 months. Randomisation was stratified by the number of bleeding events in the 6 months before screening (≤10 bleeds and >10 bleeds) and by haemophilia type (haemophilia A or B). The primary endpoint was annualised bleeding rate, analysed in the intention-to-treat analysis set. Safety and tolerability were assessed in the safety analysis set. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03417245, and is complete. Findings: Between March 1, 2018, and July 14, 2021, 177 male participants were screened for eligibility and 120 were randomly assigned to receive fitusiran prophylaxis (n=80) or on-demand clotting factor concentrates (n=40). Median follow-up was 7·8 months (IQR 7·8–7·8) in the fitusiran group and 7·8 months (7·8–7·8) in the on-demand clotting factor concentrates group. The median annualised bleeding rate was 0·0 (0·0–3·4) in the fitusiran group and 21·8 (8·4–41·0) in the on-demand clotting factor concentrates group. The estimated mean annualised bleeding rate was significantly lower in the fitusiran prophylaxis group (3·1 [95% CI 2·3–4·3]) than in the on-demand clotting factor concentrates group (31·0 [21·1–45·5]; rate ratio 0·101 [95% CI 0·064–0·159]; p<0·0001). In the fitusiran group, 40 (51%) of 79 treated participants had no treated bleeds compared with two (5%) of 40 participants in the on-demand clotting factor concentrates group. Increased alanine aminotransferase concentration (18 [23%] of 79 participants in the safety analysis set) was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event in the fitusiran group and hypertension (four (10%) of 40 participants) was the most common in the on-demand clotting factor concentrates group. Treatment-emergent serious adverse events were reported in five (6%) participants in the fitusiran group (cholelithiasis [n=2, 3%], cholecystitis [n=1, 1%], lower respiratory tract infection [n=1, 1%], and asthma [n=1, 1%]) and five (13%) participants in the on-demand clotting factor concentrates group (gastroenteritis, pneumonia, suicidal ideation, diplopia, osteoarthritis, epidural haemorrhage, humerus fracture, subdural haemorrhage, and tibia fracture [all n=1, 3%]). No treatment-related thrombosis or deaths were reported. Interpretation: In participants with haemophilia A or B without inhibitors, fitusiran prophylaxis resulted in significant reductions in annualised bleeding rate compared with on-demand clotting factor concentrates and no bleeding events in approximately half of participants. Fitusiran prophylaxis shows haemostatic efficacy in both haemophilia A and haemophilia B, and therefore has the potential to be transformative in the management of all people with haemophilia. Funding: Sanofi.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e322-e332
JournalThe Lancet Haematology
Volume10
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2023

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