Organic dyes that contain a 2,7-diaminofluorene-based donor, a cyanoacrylic-acid acceptor, and various aromatic conjugation segments, which are composed of benzene, fluorene, carbazole, and thiophene units, as a π-bridge have been synthesized and characterized by optical, electrochemical, and theoretical investigations. The trends in the absorption and electrochemical properties of these dyes are in accordance with the electron-donating ability of the conjugating segment. Consequently, the dyes that contained a 2,7-carbazole unit in the π-spacer exhibited red-shifted absorption and lower oxidation potentials than their corresponding fluorene- and phenylene-bridged dyes. However, the enhanced power-conversion efficiency that was exhibited by the fluorene-bridged dyes in the DSSCs was attributed to their broader and intense absorption. Despite the longer-wavelength absorption and reasonable optical density, carbazole-bridged dyes exhibited lower power-conversion efficiencies, which were ascribed to the poor alignment of the LUMO level in these dyes, thereby leading to the inhibition of electron injection into the TiO2 conduction band. The spacer race: Organic dyes that contain a 2,7-diaminofluorene-based donor and a cyanoacrylic-acid acceptor, bridged by various aromatic segments, are efficient sensitizers for DSSCs, owing to their broad and intense absorption profile.
- density functional calculations
- donor-acceptor systems
- solar cells