Intracavity absorption spectroscopy with a broadband Er3+-doped fiber laser is applied for the measurements of several molecular species revealing quantitative information about the gas concentration, temperature and chemical reactions in flames. The spectral range of measurements extends from 6200 cm-1 to 6550 cm-1 with the proper choice of the fiber length and by moving an intracavity lens. With a pulsed laser applied in this experiment, the sensitivity to absorption corresponds to an effective absorption path length of 3 km assuming the cavity is completely filled with the sample. For a cw laser, the effective absorption path length is estimated to be 50 km. Absorption spectra of various molecules such as CO2, CO, H 2O, H2S, C2H2 and OH were recorded separately in the cell and/or in low-pressure methane and propane flames. The presented measurements demonstrate simultaneous in situ detection of three molecular products of chemical reactions at different flame locations. Variation of the relative strengths of OH absorption lines with the temperature enables the estimation of the local flame temperature. The sensitivity of this laser does not depend on the broadband cavity losses and it can be used for in situ measurements of absorption spectra in hostile environments such as contaminated samples, flames or combustion engines. The presented technique can be applied for various diagnostic purposes, such as in environmental, combustion and plasma research, in medicine and in the determination of stable isotope ratios.