Female fragile X premutation carriers are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome from early adulthood

Noah Gruber*, Lilach Marom Haham, Hila Raanani, Yoram Cohen, Lidia V. Gabis, Michal Berkenstadt, Liat Ries-Levavi, Shai Elizur, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and aims: Women with primary ovarian insufficiency exhibit an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile. A common cause for primary ovarian insufficiency is fragile X premutation (FXPC), and data on the cardiovascular risk factors in women with FXPC are scarce. We aimed to assess the prevalences of abnormal metabolic components among FXPC. Methods and results: Clinical, anthropometric and laboratory data were collected from 71 women with FXPC and compared to 78 women referred for counseling in an in-vitro fertilization clinic (control group). The mean ± SD ages of the FXPC and control groups were 33.5 ± 5.6 and 36.2 ± 5.3 years, respectively (p = 0.003). In a logistic regression analysis, the FXPC group had increased risks for hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, central obesity and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, of 21.8-fold (95% CI 2.7–175, p = 0.004), 6.9-fold (95% CI 2.5–18.7, p < 0.0001), 3.1-fold (95% CI 1.4–6.9, p = 0.005) and 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.1–5.2, p = 0.03), compared to the control group. The FXPC group had 2.7-fold higher prevalence of two abnormal metabolic components; 19% met the full criteria of MetS, compared to 3% of the control group. Neither CGG repeats nor ovarian reserve markers were associated with metabolic risk. Conclusions: Carriers of fragile X premutation are at increased metabolic risk from early adulthood; waist circumference, glucose and lipid levels are particularly elevated. We recommend metabolic screening for all women with FMR1 premutation, to enable early interventions for prevention of long-term cardiovascular comorbidities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1010-1018
Number of pages9
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • Carrier
  • FMR1
  • Fragile X
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Premutation


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