Federated learning of electronic health records to improve mortality prediction in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: Machine learning approach

Akhil Vaid, Suraj K. Jaladanki, Jie Xu, Shelly Teng, Arvind Kumar, Samuel Lee, Sulaiman Somani, Ishan Paranjpe, Jessica K. de Freitas, Tingyi Wanyan, Kipp W. Johnson, Mesude Bicak, Eyal Klang, Young Joon Kwon, Anthony Costa, Shan Zhao, Riccardo Miotto, Alexander W. Charney, Erwin Böttinger, Zahi A. FayadGirish N. Nadkarni, Fei Wang, Benjamin S. Glicksberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Machine learning models require large datasets that may be siloed across different health care institutions. Machine learning studies that focus on COVID-19 have been limited to single-hospital data, which limits model generalizability. Objective: We aimed to use federated learning, a machine learning technique that avoids locally aggregating raw clinical data across multiple institutions, to predict mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 within 7 days. Methods: Patient data were collected from the electronic health records of 5 hospitals within the Mount Sinai Health System. Logistic regression with L1 regularization/least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) models were trained by using local data at each site. We developed a pooled model with combined data from all 5 sites, and a federated model that only shared parameters with a central aggregator. Results: The LASSOfederated model outperformed the LASSOlocal model at 3 hospitals, and the MLPfederated model performed better than the MLPlocal model at all 5 hospitals, as determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The LASSOpooled model outperformed the LASSOfederated model at all hospitals, and the MLPfederated model outperformed the MLPpooled model at 2 hospitals. Conclusions: The federated learning of COVID-19 electronic health record data shows promise in developing robust predictive models without compromising patient privacy.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere24207
JournalJMIR Medical Informatics
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Electronic health records
  • Federated learning
  • Machine learning

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