Features and long-term outcomes of patients hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis

Michal Michaelis*, Tzippy Shochat, Ilan Shimon, Amit Akirov

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute metabolic complication characterized by hyperglycaemia, ketones in blood or urine, and acidosis. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize features of patients hospitalized for DKA, to identify triggers for DKA and to evaluate the long-term effects of DKA on glycaemic control, complications of diabetes, re-hospitalizations, and mortality. Methods: Historical prospectively collected data of patients hospitalized to medical wards for DKA between 2011 and 2017. Data regarding comorbidities, mortality, triggers, and re-hospitalizations for DKA were also collected. Results: The cohort consisted of 160 patients (mean age 38 ± 18 years, 43% male). One fifth of the patients (34 patients, 21%) were newly diagnosed with diabetes, and DKA was their first presentation of the disease. Among the 126 patients with pre-existing diabetes, the common identified triggers for DKA were poor compliance to treatment (22%) and infectious diseases (18%). During over 7 years of follow-up, mortality rate was 9% (15 patients), and re-hospitalization for DKA rate was 31% (50 patients). Risk factors for re-hospitalization for DKA included young age (OR = 1.02, 95% CI, 1.00–1.04), pre-existing diabetes compared to DKA as the first presentation (OR = 5.4, 95% CI, 1.7–18), and poorer glycaemic control before initial hospitalization (10.5 ± 2.5% vs. 9.4 ± 2.2%; OR = 0.8, 95% CI [0.68-0.96]) and after discharge (10.3 ± 2.4% vs. 9.0 ± 1.9%; OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.61–0.87]). Laboratory tests during the initial hospitalization, smoking, alcohol, or comorbidities did not increase the risk for re-hospitalization for DKA. Conclusions: The risk for readmission for DKA is higher for young patients with long duration of diabetes, poor compliance of insulin treatment and poorly controlled diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3408
JournalDiabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
Volume37
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Keywords

  • DKA
  • mortality
  • re-hospitalization
  • triggers

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