Faradaic impedance spectroscopy for detection of small molecules binding using the avidin-biotin model

Tal Yoetz-Kopelman, Yaron Ram, Amihay Freeman, Yosi Shacham-Diamand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The changes in the Faradaic impedance of gold/biomolecules system due to specific binding of small molecule to a significantly larger binding protein molecule were investigated. The biotin (244.31 Da) - avidin (66000 Da) couple was used as a model for small ligand - binding protein biorecognition. The study was carried out under open circuit potential in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]-3/-4 redox couple. An equivalent electrical circuit was proposed and used for the interpretation of the recorded impedance spectra. Adsorption of thiolated avidin increased the electron transfer resistance, Rct, by a factor of about 7.5 while subsequent addition of biotin within the concentration range of 4.1-40.9 nM reduced the value of Rct by amount proportional to the biotin concentration. The addition of biotin did not affect, however, the equivalent double layer capacitance or other equivalent circuit parameters. A simple model based on effective surface coverage by the avidin molecules and the effect of the added biotin on electron transfer through the coated surface is proposed. A model for the minimum detection limit based on the random distribution of the binding protein and its dimensions is proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)630-635
Number of pages6
JournalElectrochimica Acta
StatePublished - 30 May 2015


  • Avidin
  • Biotin
  • Electrochemical Biosensor
  • Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)
  • Faradaic Impedance


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