We describe a case of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) demonstrating pre- and post-natal intra-familial variability. Our first encounter with the family occurred in the 1990s following the birth of 3 affected offspring. The first two pregnancies presented with exomphalos and elevated second trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (msAFP, 3.43 and 4.01 MOM, respectively) as well as elevated maternal human chorionic gonadotrophin (mhCG, 4.33 and 8.8 MOM, respectively). The diagnosis of BWS was confirmed postnatally in both cases. The third ongoing pregnancy presented only with elevated mhCG (7.09 MOM) and no malformation. Nonetheless BWS was suspected. The diagnosis was confirmed postnatally with clinical manifestations including macroglossia and cleft palate. Two affected female siblings were also diagnosed with Mullerian agenesis in adulthood. Suspecting a common genetic etiology, sequencing of the CDKN1C gene revealed a maternally inherited, likely pathogenic variant (NM_000076.2: c.367_385del; p.(Ala123Serfs*143)) causative of BWS. Chromosomal microarray and whole exome sequencing did not reveal any other pathogenic variant that would explain the Mullerian agenesis. One of the affected females underwent successful preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) with a surrogate and gave birth to a healthy female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Mullerian agenesis as a possible rare expansion of the BWS phenotype. In addition, this case highlights the potential role of abnormal second trimester biochemical markers (msAFP, mHCG) as possible indicators of BWS, especially in familial cases.
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
- Mullerian agenesis
- Prenatal diagnosis
- Second trimester human chorionic gonadotrophin