Falls and freezing of Gait in Parkinson's disease: A review of two interconnected, episodic phenomena

Bastiaan R. Bloem*, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Jasper E. Visser, Nir Giladi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Falls and freezing of gait are two "episodic" phenomena that are common in Parkinson's disease. Both symptoms are often incapacitating for affectect patients, as the associated physical and psychosocial consequences have a great impact on the patients' quality of life, and survival is diminished. Furthermore, the resultant loss of independence and the treatment costs of injuries add substantially to the health care expenditures associated with Parkinson's disease. In this clinically oriented review, We summarise recent insights into falls and freezing of gait and highlight their similarities, differences, and links. Topics covered include the clinical presentation, recent ideas about the underlying pathophysiology, and the possibilities for treatment. A review of the literature and the current state-of-the-art suggests that clinicians should not feel deterred by the complex nature of falls and freezing of gait; a careful clinical approach may lead to an individually tailored treatment, which can offer at least partial relief for many affected patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)871-884
Number of pages14
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2004


FundersFunder number
National Institute on AgingP60AG008812


    • Falls
    • Freezing
    • Gait
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Pathophysiology
    • Treatment


    Dive into the research topics of 'Falls and freezing of Gait in Parkinson's disease: A review of two interconnected, episodic phenomena'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this