Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in people with cystic fibrosis ( pwCF) can lead to severe outcomes. Methods In this observational study, the European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry collected data on pwCF and SARS-CoV-2 infection to estimate incidence, describe clinical presentation and investigate factors associated with severe outcomes using multivariable analysis. Results Up to December 31, 2020, 26 countries reported information on 828 pwCF and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Incidence was 17.2 per 1000 pwCF (95% CI: 16.0–18.4). Median age was 24 years, 48.4% were male and 9.4% had lung transplants. SARS-CoV-2 incidence was higher in lung-transplanted (28.6; 95% CI: 22.7–35.5) versus non-lung-transplanted pwCF (16.6; 95% CI: 15.4–17.8) ( p⩽0.001). SARS-CoV-2 infection caused symptomatic illness in 75.7%. Factors associated with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were age >40 years, at least one F508del mutation and pancreatic insufficiency. Overall, 23.7% of pwCF were admitted to hospital, 2.5% of those to intensive care, and regretfully 11 (1.4%) died. Hospitalisation, oxygen therapy, intensive care, respiratory support and death were 2-to 6-fold more frequent in lung-transplanted versus non-lung-transplanted pwCF. Factors associated with hospitalisation and oxygen therapy were lung transplantation, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD), moderate or severe lung disease and azithromycin use (often considered a surrogate marker for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and poorer lung function). Conclusion SARS-CoV-2 infection yielded high morbidity and hospitalisation in pwCF. PwCF with forced expiratory volume in 1 s <70% predicted, CFRD and those with lung transplants are at particular risk of more severe outcomes.