Factors Affecting Paramedic Response Readiness to CBRN Threats in Ontario, Canada

Zachary Novack*, Lewis Novack, Robert Davidson, Gili Shenhar, Moran Bodas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To determine factors associated with increased response readiness to CBRN threats of paramedics in Ontario, Canada. Methods: An internet-based survey was distributed via email and delivered at the start of each shift presentation during October, 2019. The target population was active-duty paramedics in the Ontario region of Canada. The survey was comprised of 6 sections pertaining to demographics, attitudinal components of risk perception, self-efficacy, deployment concerns, and resilience. Survey mean, univariate, and multivariate regression analyses were used to find the individual effect of each variable. Results: The univariate analysis indicated that higher response readiness was associated with additional training, education, CBRN, and family concerns, and incident experience. However, some variables were non-significant in the multivariate analysis. Increased response readiness was associated with CBRN concerns and training. Conclusion: CBRN concerns and focused training regarding terrorism were both associated with increased response readiness. The information from the study can be used to build upon existing knowledge and support paramedics though training and preparation for CBRN specific disasters. The findings may also be used to improve current competency-based frameworks focused on response readiness.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere228
JournalDisaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Issue number2
StatePublished - 28 Oct 2023


  • CBRN
  • Ontario
  • paramedics
  • resilience
  • response readiness


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