Extrapolation methods for dynamic partial differential equations

Eli Turkel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Several extrapolation procedures are presented for increasing the order of accuracy in time for evolutionary partial differential equations. These formulas are based on finite difference schemes in both the spatial and temporal directions. One of these schemes reduces to a Runge-Kutta type formula when the equations are linear. On practical grounds the methods are restricted to schemes that are fourth order in time and either second, fourth or sixth order in space. For hyperbolic problems the second order in space methods are not useful while the fourth order methods offer no advantage over the Kreiss-Oliger method unless very fine meshes are used. Advantages are first achieved using sixth order methods in space coupled with fourth order accuracy in time. The averaging procedure advocated by Gragg does not increase the efficiency of the scheme. For parabolic problems severe stability restrictions are encountered that limit the applicability to problems with large cell Reynolds number. Computational results are presented confirming the analytic discussions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)269-285
Number of pages17
JournalNumerische Mathematik
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1978
Externally publishedYes


  • Subject Classifications: AMS (MOS): 65M99, CR: 5.17


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