Extracorporeal life support in patients with multiple injuries and severe respiratory failure: A single-center experience?

Philippe Biderman*, Sharon Einav, Michael Fainblut, Michael Stein, Pierre Singer, Benjamin Medalion

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The use of extracorporeal life support in trauma casualties is limited by concerns regarding hemorrhage, particularly in the presence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We report the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)/interventional lung assist (iLA) as salvage therapy in trauma patients. High-flow technique without anticoagulation was used in patients with coagulopathy or TBI. METHODS: Data were collected from all adult trauma patients referred to one center for ECMO/iLA treatment owing to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. RESULTS: Ten casualties had a mean (SD) Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 50.3 (10.5) (mean [SD] age, 29.8 [7.7] years; 60% male) and were supported 9.5 (4.5) days on ECMO (n = 5) and 7.6 (6.5) days on iLA (n = 5). All experienced blunt injury with severe chest injuries, including one cardiac perforation. Most were coagulopathic before initiation of ECMO/iLA support. Among the seven patients with TBI, four had active intracranial hemorrhage. Complications directly related to support therapy were not lethal; these included hemorrhage from a cannulation site (n = 1), accidental removal of a cannula (n = 1), and pressure sores (n = 3). Deaths occurred owing to septic (n = 2) and cardiogenic shock (n = 1). Survival rateswere 60% and 80% on ECMOand iLA, respectively. Follow-up of survivors detected no neurologic deterioration. CONCLUSION: ECMO/iLA therapy can be used as a rescue therapy in adult trauma patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, even in the presence of coagulopathy and/or brain injury. The benefits of rewarming, acid-base correction, oxygenation, and circulatory support must beweighed individually against the risk of hemorrhage. Further research should determinewhether ECMO therapy also confers survival benefit.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)907-912
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Volume75
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2013

Keywords

  • Adult respiratory distress syndrome
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • Multiple trauma
  • Traumatic brain injury

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