We summarize three lines of development and investigation of foundryprocessed patch-antenna-coupled Si MOSFETs as detectors of THz radiation: (i) Exploiting the pinciple of plasma-waved-based mixing in the two-dimensional electron gas of the transistors' channels, we demonstrate efficient detection at frequencies as high as 9 THz, much above the transit-time-limited cut-off frequencies of the devices (tens of GHz). Real-time imaging at 600 GHz with a 12×12 detector array is explored. (ii) Given the limited THz power usually available for applications, we explore imaging with enhanced sensitivity in heterodyne mode. We show that real-time operation of a 100×100-pixel heterodyne camera should be possible at 600 GHz with a better dynamic range (30 dB) than for direct power detection (20 dB), even if only a quarter-milliwatt of local-oscillator power, distributed radiatively over all detector pixels, is available. (iii) Finally, we present an all-electronic rasterscan imaging system for 220 GHz entirely based on CMOS devices, combining the CMOS detectors with an emitter circuit implemented in a 90-nm CMOS process and delivering radiation with a power on the 100-μW scale. Considering progress in the field, we anticipate that the emitter concept of oscillator-based power generation with on-chip frequency multiplication will carry well into the sub-millimeter-wave regime.
|Number of pages||18|
|Journal||Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves|
|State||Published - Jan 2014|
- Heterodyne detection
- Silicon CMOS circuits
- Terahertz emitters and detectors
- Terahertz imaging