Iron-sulfur cluster assembly 2 (ISCA2)-related multiple mitochondrial dysfunction syndrome 4 (MMDS4) is a fatal autosomal recessive mitochondrial leukoencephalopathy. The disease typically manifests with rapid neurodevelopmental deterioration during the first months of life leading to a vegetative state and early death. MRI demonstrates a demyelinating leukodystrophy. We describe an eleven-year-old boy with a milder phenotype of ISCA2 related disorder manifesting as: normal early development, acute infantile neurologic deterioration leading to stable spastic quadriparesis, optic atrophy and mild cognitive impairment. The first MRI demonstrated a diffuse demyelinating leukodystrophy. A sequential MRI revealed white matter rarefaction with well-delineated cysts. The patient harbors two novel bi-allelic variants (p.Ala2Asp and p.Pro138Arg) in ISCA2 inherited from heterozygous carrier parents. This report expands the clinical spectrum of ISCA2-related disorders to include a milder phenotype with a longer life span and better psychomotor function and cavitating leukodystrophy on MRI. We discuss the possible genetic explanation for the different presentation.
- Multiple mitochondrial dysfunction syndrome
- Spastic quadriparesis
- White matter rarefaction