Exercise as Medicine: Evaluation and Prescription for Adults with Congenital Heart Disease

David Leone, Jonathan Buber, Keri Shafer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: Understanding exercise physiology as it relates to adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) can be complex. Here we review fundamental physiologic principles and provide a framework for application to the unique ACHD patient population. Recent Findings: ACHD exercise participation has changed dramatically in the last 50 years. A modern approach focuses on exercise principles and individual anatomic and physiologic considerations. With an evolving better understanding of ACHD exercise physiology, we can strategize plans for patients to participate in dynamic and static exercises. Newly developed technologies including wearable devices provide additive information for ACHD providers for further assessment and monitoring. Summary: Preparation and assessment for ACHD patients prior to exercise require a thoughtful, personalized approach. Exercise prescriptions can be formulated to adequately meet the needs of our patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1909-1919
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Cardiology Reports
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Adult congenital heart disease
  • Dynamic exercise
  • Exercise physiology
  • Exercise prescription
  • Wearables


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