Exact asymptotics of long-range quantum correlations in a non-equilibrium steady state

Shachar Fraenkel*, Moshe Goldstein

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Out-of-equilibrium states of many-body systems tend to evade a description by standard statistical mechanics, and their uniqueness is epitomized by the possibility of certain long-range correlations that cannot occur in equilibrium. In quantum many-body systems, coherent correlations of this sort may lead to the emergence of remarkable entanglement structures. In this work, we analytically study the asymptotic scaling of quantum correlation measures—the mutual information (MI) and the fermionic negativity—within the zero-temperature steady state of voltage-biased free fermions on a one-dimensional lattice containing a non-interacting impurity. Previously, we have shown that two subsystems on opposite sides of the impurity exhibit volume-law entanglement, which is independent of the absolute distances of the subsystems from the impurity. Here, we go beyond that result and derive the exact form of the subleading logarithmic corrections to the extensive terms of correlation measures, in excellent agreement with numerical calculations. In particular, the logarithmic term of the MI asymptotics can be encapsulated in a concise formula, depending only on simple four-point ratios of subsystem length scales and on the impurity scattering probabilities at the Fermi energies. This echoes the case of equilibrium states, where such logarithmic terms may convey universal information about the physical system. To compute these exact results, we devise a hybrid method that relies on Toeplitz determinant asymptotics for correlation matrices in both real space and momentum space, successfully circumventing the inhomogeneity of the system. This method could potentially find wider use for analytical calculations of entanglement measures in similar scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number033107
JournalJournal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment
Issue number3
StatePublished - 29 Mar 2024


  • entanglement in extended quantum systems
  • quantum defects


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