In this article, I discuss the use of neurally driven evolutionary autonomous agents (EAAs) in neuroscientific investigations. Two fundamental questions are addressed. Can EAA studies shed new light on the structure and function of biological nervous systems? And can these studies lead to the development of new tools for neuroscientific analysis? The value and significant potential of EAA modelling in both respects is demonstrated and discussed. Although the study of EAAs for neuroscience research still faces difficult conceptual and technical challenges, it is a promising and timely endeavour.