Proton ATPases function in biological energy conversion in every known living cell. Their ubiquity and antiquity make them a prime source for evolutionary studies. There are two related families of H+-ATPases; while the family of F-ATPases function in eubacteria chloroplasts and mitochondria, the family of V-ATPases are present in archaebacteria and the vacuolar system of eukaryotic cells. Sequence analysis of several subunits of V- and F-ATPases revealed several of the important steps in their evolution. Moreover, these studies shed light on the evolution of the various organelles of eukaryotes and suggested some events in the evolution of the three kingdoms of eubacteria, archaebacteria and eukaryotes.
- Vacuolar system