We have compared the effect of microwave irradiation and of conventional heating on the fluorescence of solution-based green fluorescent protein. A specialized near-field 8.5 GHz microwave applicator operating at 250 mW input microwave power was used. The solution temperature, the intensity, and the spectrum of the green fluorescent protein fluorescence 1), under microwave irradiation and 2), under conventional heating, were measured. In both cases the fluorescence intensity decreases and the spectrum becomes red-shifted. Although the microwave irradiation heats the solution, the microwave-induced changes in fluorescence cannot be explained by heating alone. Several possible scenarios are discussed.