Childhood onset differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is distinct from the adult-onset disease being more aggressive at the time of initial evaluation with a higher risk category for disease recurrence; however, it is ultimately less lethal. International groups have outlined consensus statements detailing follow up and management guidelines for adult DTC, but since disease progression and markers are significantly different in childhood DTC compared to adults, management protocols may differ. Unfortunately, there is no consensus regarding the means of follow up, timing and management strategy regarding pediatric DTC. We performed an evidence-based review of DTC in children targeted to address the following questions: What is the most appropriate initial treatment? What is the goal of thyroid hormone replacement management? What is the approach to follow-up of childhood DTC? and, How should tumor recurrence/persistence be assessed and treated? We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Cochrane databases, guidelines from various international groups, and studies pertaining to pediatric DTC management and outcome in order to answer these questions. We suggest a pre-set algorithm and approach for the management of children with DTC according to our review.
- Differentiated thyroid cancer