Evaluative conditioning and conscious knowledge of contingencies: A correlational investigation with large samples

Yoav Bar-Anan, Jan De Houwer, Brian A. Nosek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Evaluative conditioning (EC) is a change in the valence of a stimulus that results from pairing the stimulus with an affective stimulus. Two high-powered studies (total N 1/4 1,161) investigated the nature of the relationship between EC and contingency awareness measured as contingency memory. Stronger EC occurred among people with more accurate and more confident memory of the pairings. Awareness was a necessary condition for EC, but EC was not necessary for awareness. Supporting a propositional account of EC, we found evidence for intentional reliance on the contingency for the evaluation of stimuli. We also found evidence that contingency memory was based both on the actual contingency and on preexisting attitudes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2313-2335
Number of pages23
JournalQuarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Volume63
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2010
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Associative learning
  • Evaluative conditioning
  • False memory
  • Propositional learning

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