Bioimpedance is a noninvasive technique that produces information on the electrical characteristics of tissue inside the body from currents injected and electrical potentials measured on the surface of the body. Because freezing causes a large increase in tissue electrical impedance we thought that it may also cause significant changes in the surface electrical potential making the bioimpedance technique suitable for noninvasive monitoring and imaging of cryosurgery. To evaluate the feasibility of the bioimpedance technique in cryosurgery we examined, as a case study, a theoretical model for the electrical potentials during brain cryosurgery. A three-dimensional spherical model was used to calculate the change in the electrical potential distribution in the head as a function of the current source location and the size of the frozen lesion in the brain. The numerical calculations were executed using the finite volume method and the iterative successive over relaxation method. The results demonstrate that, indeed, freezing inside the head produces measurable changes in the electrical potential on the outer surface - the scalp.
- Electrical bioimpedance
- Electrical impedance tomography
- Frozen tissue