Evaluating the therapeutic effect of tumor treating fields (TTFields) by monitoring the impedance across TTFields electrode arrays

Xing Li, Moshe Oziel, Boris Rubinsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background. Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields), are a novel, non-invasive tissue ablation technology for treatment of cancer. Tissue ablation is achieved through the continuous delivery of a narrow range of electromagnetic fields across a tumor, for a period of months. TTFields are designed to affect only cells that divide and to interfere with the cell division process. The therapy is monitored with MRI imaging, performed every couple of months. Current technology is unable to assess the treatment effectiveness in real time. Methods. We propose that the effect of the treatment can be assessed, in real time, by continuously measuring the change in electrical impedance across the TTFields delivery electrode arrays. An in vitro anatomic skull experimental study, with brain and tumor mimics phantom tissues was conducted to confirm the potential value of the proposed monitoring system. Results. Experiments show that measuring the change in the impedance amplitude between opposite TTFields electrode arrays, at a typical TTFields treatment frequency of (200 kHz), can detect changes in the tumor radius with a sensitivity that increases with the radius of the tumor. The study shows that TTFields electrode arrays can be used to assess the effectiveness of TTFields treatment on changes in the tumor dimensions in real time, throughout the treatement. This monitoring system may become a valuable addition to the TTFields cancer treatment technology. It could provide the means to continuously assess the effectiveness of the treatment, and thereby optimize the design of the treatment protocol.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12877
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • Brain tumor
  • Impedance detection
  • Monitoring sensitivity
  • Tumor Treating Fields
  • Tumor condition


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