Evaluating the reliability of ChatGPT as a tool for imaging test referral: a comparative study with a clinical decision support system

Shani Rosen, Mor Saban*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: As the technology continues to evolve and advance, we can expect to see artificial intelligence (AI) being used in increasingly sophisticated ways to make a diagnosis and decisions such as suggesting the most appropriate imaging referrals. We aim to explore whether Chat Generative Pretrained Transformer (ChatGPT) can provide accurate imaging referrals for clinical use that are at least as good as the ESR iGuide. Methods: A comparative study was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Data was collected from 97 consecutive cases that were admitted to the emergency department with abdominal complaints. We compared the imaging test referral recommendations suggested by the ESR iGuide and the ChatGPT and analyzed cases of disagreement. In addition, we selected cases where ChatGPT recommended a chest abdominal pelvis (CAP) CT (n = 66), and asked four specialists to grade the appropriateness of the referral. Results: ChatGPT recommendations were consistent with the recommendations provided by the ESR iGuide. No statistical differences were found between the appropriateness of referrals by age or gender. Using a sub-analysis of CAP cases, a high agreement between ChatGPT and the specialists was found. Cases of disagreement (12.4%) were further analyzed and presented themes of vague recommendations such as “it would be advisable” and “this would help to rule out.” Conclusions: ChatGPT’s ability to guide the selection of appropriate tests may be comparable to some degree with the ESR iGuide. Features such as the clinical, ethical, and regulatory implications are still warranted and need to be addressed prior to clinical implementation. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Clinical relevance statement: The article explores the potential of using advanced language models, such as ChatGPT, in healthcare as a CDS for selecting appropriate imaging tests. Using ChatGPT can improve the efficiency of the decision-making process Key Points: • ChatGPT recommendations were highly consistent with the recommendations provided by the ESR iGuide. • ChatGPT’s ability in guiding the selection of appropriate tests may be comparable to some degree with ESR iGuide’s.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Radiology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Keywords

  • Artificial intelligence
  • ChatGPT
  • ESR iGuide
  • Imaging

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluating the reliability of ChatGPT as a tool for imaging test referral: a comparative study with a clinical decision support system'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this