The paper focuses on the problems ot identifying ethnic and citizen needs among immigrants and indigenous societies that pass a rapid process of social change. The paper outlines the model of ethnicity versus citizenship with regard to two main approaches to social change: the assimilationist and the pluralist. This model is used to analyse two development experiences: those of the Ethiopian Jews and the Bedouin in the Negev. Another analytical tool presented in the paper is the definition of discrimination in development projects, also using the terms of ethnic and citixen needs. The paper concludes with suggested guidelines for formulating 'ethnically sensitive planning', an approach which, it is believed, can do much to ease the process of transition of ethnic groups and immigrants.