Ethical and legal implications in seeking and providing a second medical opinion

Anthony Axon, Majid Hassan, Yaron Niv, Christoph Beglinger*, Theodore Rokkas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Ethical and legal implications arise both when seeking a second medical opinion and when providing one. There has been debate as to whether a second opinion for a patient is a right or a concession and whilst today most would consider it to be a patient's right, there are nevertheless some disadvantages associated with seeking a second opinion. This article addresses the reasons why patients seek second opinions, it considers when physicians themselves should refer patients and it covers the issues involved in providing a second opinion particularly in cases where there is the potential for an allegation of malpractice. Finally, the arguments for and against treating patients who are referred for a second opinion are addressed. This paper has been prepared following a round table discussion on this subject, which was addressed during a symposium on Ethics in Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy held in Kos in 2006.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-17
Number of pages7
JournalDigestive Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2007


  • Endoscopy
  • Ethics
  • Patient autonomy
  • Right or concession
  • Second opinions, legal implications


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