In order to examine changes in sperm chromatin upon epididymal maturation in the macaque epididymis (Macaca fascicularis), spermatozoa were obtained from six regions of the duct and examined for the state of their chromatin condensation by flow cytometry after staining with acridine orange. To see whether changes were affected by androgens, tissue was obtained from five monkeys treated with the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist Cetrorelix. Spermatozoa were recovered from treated and control animals after 16 days (at hemicastration) and another 9 days of treatment. Chromatin condensation of epididymal spermatozoa from controls displayed an increase upon maturation. After 16 days of GnRH-antagonist treatment, spermatozoa in the caput epididymidis displayed greater fluorescence than those from controls, but this was reduced during epididymal transit to values found in the distal epididymal regions of the controls. It is concluded that epididymal chromatin condensation 1) is normal in GnRH-antagonist-treated monkeys as long as sperm are being produced and 2) can compensate for poor testis function so that spermatozoa with normal states of chromatin condensation are found in the distal cauda epididymidis and probably the ejaculate.