Epidemiology of the diabetes-cardio-renal spectrum: a cross-sectional report of 1.4 million adults

Meir Schechter, Cheli Melzer Cohen, Ilan Yanuv, Aliza Rozenberg, Gabriel Chodick, Johan Bodegård, Lawrence A. Leiter, Subodh Verma, Hiddo J. Lambers Heerspink, Avraham Karasik, Ofri Mosenzon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D), chronic kidney disease, and heart failure (HF) share epidemiological and pathophysiological features. Although their prevalence was described, there is limited contemporary, high-resolution, epidemiological data regarding the overlap among them. We aimed to describe the epidemiological intersections between T2D, HF, and kidney dysfunction in an entire database, overall and by age and sex. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of adults ≥ 25 years, registered in 2019 at Maccabi Healthcare Services, a large healthcare maintenance organization in Israel. Collected data included sex, age, presence of T2D or HF, and last estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the past two years. Subjects with T2D, HF, or eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were defined as within the diabetes-cardio-renal (DCR) spectrum. Results: Overall, 1,389,604 subjects (52.2% females) were included; 445,477 (32.1%) were 25– < 40 years, 468,273 (33.7%) were 40– < 55 years, and 475,854 (34.2%) were ≥ 55 years old. eGFR measurements were available in 74.7% of the participants and in over 97% of those with T2D or HF. eGFR availability increased in older age groups. There were 140,636 (10.1%) patients with T2D, 54,187 (3.9%) with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2, and 11,605 (0.84%) with HF. Overall, 12.6% had at least one condition within the DCR spectrum, 2.0% had at least two, and 0.23% had all three. Cardiorenal syndrome (both HF and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2) was prevalent in 0.40% of the entire population and in 2.3% of those with T2D. In patients with both HF and T2D, 55.2% had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 and 15.8% had eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m2. Amongst those within the DCR spectrum, T2D was prominent in younger participants, but was gradually replaced by HF and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 with increasing age. The congruence between all three conditions increased with age. Conclusions: This large, broad-based study provides a contemporary, high-resolution prevalence of the DCR spectrum and its components. The results highlight differences in dominance and degree of congruence between T2D, HF, and kidney dysfunction across ages.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104
JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


FundersFunder number
Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital
Gilead Sciences
Boehringer Ingelheim
Janssen Pharmaceuticals
Novo Nordisk
Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation


    • Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Cross-sectional Study
    • Diabetes-cardio-renal Spectrum
    • Epidemiology
    • Heart Failure
    • Type-2 Diabetes


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