Epidemiology and correlates of osteoporotic fractures among type 2 diabetic patients

Inbal Goldshtein*, Allison Martin Nguyen, Anne E. dePapp, Sofia Ish-Shalom, Julie M. Chandler, Gabriel Chodick, Varda Shalev

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Summary: This study analyzed data on 87,224 osteoporotic patients with up to 18 years of computerized medical history. Patients with osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes had higher bone density yet more fractures than non-diabetic osteoporotic patients. Fracture incidence among the diabetic patients was associated with retinopathy and cardiovascular disease, but not with diabetes duration. Purpose: Little is known about the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and fragility fractures or the mechanism(s) involved. We examined fracture correlates among T2DM patients with osteoporosis. Methods: We used electronic health records of an osteoporosis (OP) registry cross-linked with a diabetes registry of a large payer provider healthcare organization in Israel. A cross-sectional analysis compared osteoporosis patients with and without T2DM, and a longitudinal Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify incident fracture correlates. Results: As of December 2015 a total of 87,224 current OP patients were identified, of whom 15,700 (18%) had T2DM. The T2DM OP patients were characterized by older age (mean 74.6 vs. 69.5), more males (20.3 vs. 14.0%), and a higher rate of chronic comorbidities compared to OP without diabetes. All major OP fractures (hip, spine, humerus, and forearm) were significantly more prevalent among T2DM OP patients (44 vs. 32%), with an overall age-standardized ratio of 1.22 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.25) and 1.15 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.21) for females and males respectively. The average T-scores were higher (femur neck − 1.8 vs. − 1.9, total hip − 1.2 vs. − 1.6, and vertebrae − 1.3 vs. − 1.7) for the T2DM OP patients compared to the non-T2DM OP patients. Among women with coexisting T2DM and osteoporosis (n = 10,812), fracture incidence was significantly associated with retinopathy (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.47) and cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.36) after controlling for age, bone mineral density T-score, rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoids, alcohol, and smoking). Conclusion: This large population-based study confirms the higher fracture risk of osteoporotic patients with T2DM, as compared to osteoporotic patients without T2DM, despite higher bone mineral density levels. The presence of micro- and macrovascular disease appears to increase this risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15
JournalArchives of Osteoporosis
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Complications
  • Fracture
  • Osteoporosis
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Dive into the research topics of 'Epidemiology and correlates of osteoporotic fractures among type 2 diabetic patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this