Background. The new Centre Questionnaire, mainly based on the collection of epidemiological data, was launched in 1996 and the overall response rate of centres for the 15 countries constituting the European Union (EU) reached 82.2% (66-100%) for 1995. Results. We could derive the following information for a general population of 372.6 million. In 1995, the incidence of new end-stage renal failure (ESRF) patients (Ni/P) was 120 p.m.p. (per million population) with a clear north to south/west gradient (69 in Ireland, 131 in Italy and 163 in Germany). The incidence of ESRF deaths (No/P) was 67 p.m.p. (from 35 in Ireland to 89 in Germany). The net increase of patients was therefore 53 p.m.p. (from 13 in Greece to 74 in Germany). The point prevalence of treated ESRF patients (Ns/P) alive on 31 December 1995 was 644 p.m.p. (from 444 in Finland to 773 in Italy). The mean increase in the stock of ESRF patients was +8.2% (4.6 to 13.0) as a linear rate and +0.085 as a fractional rate (exponential). The first treatment of new patients (Ni) was haemodialysis (HD; 81%), peritoneal dialysis (PD; 18%) and pre-emptive renal transplantation (Tx; 1%). The latest treatment for patients still alive was HD (58.5%), PD (9%) or functional Tx (32.5%). The number of Tx was 30 p.m.p. (from 14 in Greece to 45 in Spain). The death rate was 10.4% for all those with ESRF, with 14.4% for those dialysed and 2.2% for transplanted patients. In 1995, 6.5% of dialysed patients received a graft and 4.0% of transplant patients returned to dialysis. The linear expansion rate of the dialysis pool and the transplant pool was respectively 8.3% and 7.9%. Conclusions. This data shows considerable disparities among countries of the EU which merit further evaluation. Also this analysis by the ERA Registry provides data of value for health and economic purposes.