Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Bloodstream Infections in Central Israel: A Case-Control Study

Yael Israel, Khitam Muhsen, Assaf Rokney, Amos Adler*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection continues to be a significant cause of morbidity. In addition to gastroenteritis (GE), NTS may cause bloodstream infections (BSI). Our goals were to characterize the demographics, clinical characteristics and outcome of NTS-BSI in central Israel. The study was a retrospective, case-control study conducted at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center between 2001–2018. Cases with NTS-BSI were matched by age and compared with two control groups, hospitalized patients with NTS-GE and patients with E. coli BSI. The NTS-BSI group included 34 patients who were compared with 69 and 68 patients in the NTS-GE and E. coli BSI groups, respectively. In the NTS-BSI group, the median age was 59 years, with 20% of patients below 20 years of age. Diarrhea was less common in NTS-BSI patients compared with NTS-GE: 53% vs. 80% (p < 0.01). Compared with NTS-GE patients, NTS-BSI patients had a higher rate of recent antimicrobial use: 21% vs. 5.9%, p = 0.03, respectively. They also had a slightly higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and history of past malignancy and steroid use, but these differences were not statistically significant. Antimicrobial treatment was documented in 30/34 of the NTS-BSI patients vs. 55/69 of the NTS-GE patients (p < 0.001). NTS-BSI patients had higher rates of in-hospital death (23% vs. 4%, p < 0.01) and a longer length of stay (8 vs. 4 days, p < 0.001) compared with NTS-GE. There was no significant difference in the outcome compared with the E. coli BSI group. In conclusion, our study found relatively low rates of pediatric cases compared with previous studies in Israel. NTS-BSI patients had slightly higher rates of comorbidities compared with NTS-GE patients, and a similar prognosis to E. coli BSI patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1942
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • bloodstream infections
  • immunocompromised
  • non-typhoidal Salmonella


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