TY - JOUR

T1 - Entrainment to subharmonic trajectories in oscillatory discrete-time systems

AU - Katz, Rami

AU - Margaliot, Michael

AU - Fridman, Emilia

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd

PY - 2020/6

Y1 - 2020/6

N2 - A matrix A is called totally positive (TP) if all its minors are positive, and totally nonnegative (TN) if all its minors are nonnegative. A square matrix A is called oscillatory if it is TN and some power of A is TP. A linear time-varying system is called an oscillatory discrete-time system (ODTS) if the matrix defining its evolution at each time k is oscillatory. We analyze the properties of n-dimensional time-varying nonlinear discrete-time systems whose variational system is an ODTS, and show that they have a well-ordered behavior. More precisely, if the nonlinear system is time-varying and T-periodic then any trajectory either leaves any compact set or converges to an ((n−1)T)-periodic trajectory, that is, a subharmonic trajectory. These results hold for any dimension n. The analysis of such systems requires establishing that a line integral of the Jacobian of the nonlinear system is an oscillatory matrix. This is non-trivial, as the sum of two oscillatory matrices is not necessarily oscillatory, and this carries over to integrals. We derive several new sufficient conditions guaranteeing that the line integral of a matrix is oscillatory, and demonstrate how this yields interesting classes of discrete-time nonlinear systems that admit a well-ordered behavior.

AB - A matrix A is called totally positive (TP) if all its minors are positive, and totally nonnegative (TN) if all its minors are nonnegative. A square matrix A is called oscillatory if it is TN and some power of A is TP. A linear time-varying system is called an oscillatory discrete-time system (ODTS) if the matrix defining its evolution at each time k is oscillatory. We analyze the properties of n-dimensional time-varying nonlinear discrete-time systems whose variational system is an ODTS, and show that they have a well-ordered behavior. More precisely, if the nonlinear system is time-varying and T-periodic then any trajectory either leaves any compact set or converges to an ((n−1)T)-periodic trajectory, that is, a subharmonic trajectory. These results hold for any dimension n. The analysis of such systems requires establishing that a line integral of the Jacobian of the nonlinear system is an oscillatory matrix. This is non-trivial, as the sum of two oscillatory matrices is not necessarily oscillatory, and this carries over to integrals. We derive several new sufficient conditions guaranteeing that the line integral of a matrix is oscillatory, and demonstrate how this yields interesting classes of discrete-time nonlinear systems that admit a well-ordered behavior.

KW - Asymptotic stability

KW - Cooperative systems

KW - Entrainment

KW - Nonlinear systems

KW - Systems biology

KW - Totally nonnegative matrices

KW - Totally positive matrices

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85082134070&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.automatica.2020.108919

DO - 10.1016/j.automatica.2020.108919

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AN - SCOPUS:85082134070

SN - 0005-1098

VL - 116

JO - Automatica

JF - Automatica

M1 - 108919

ER -