Entrainment to subharmonic trajectories in oscillatory discrete-time systems

Rami Katz, Michael Margaliot*, Emilia Fridman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


A matrix A is called totally positive (TP) if all its minors are positive, and totally nonnegative (TN) if all its minors are nonnegative. A square matrix A is called oscillatory if it is TN and some power of A is TP. A linear time-varying system is called an oscillatory discrete-time system (ODTS) if the matrix defining its evolution at each time k is oscillatory. We analyze the properties of n-dimensional time-varying nonlinear discrete-time systems whose variational system is an ODTS, and show that they have a well-ordered behavior. More precisely, if the nonlinear system is time-varying and T-periodic then any trajectory either leaves any compact set or converges to an ((n−1)T)-periodic trajectory, that is, a subharmonic trajectory. These results hold for any dimension n. The analysis of such systems requires establishing that a line integral of the Jacobian of the nonlinear system is an oscillatory matrix. This is non-trivial, as the sum of two oscillatory matrices is not necessarily oscillatory, and this carries over to integrals. We derive several new sufficient conditions guaranteeing that the line integral of a matrix is oscillatory, and demonstrate how this yields interesting classes of discrete-time nonlinear systems that admit a well-ordered behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108919
StatePublished - Jun 2020


FundersFunder number
United States - Israel Binational Science Foundation
United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation
Israel Science Foundation


    • Asymptotic stability
    • Cooperative systems
    • Entrainment
    • Nonlinear systems
    • Systems biology
    • Totally nonnegative matrices
    • Totally positive matrices


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