An important operation parameter in the design of a pulsed air sparging (PAS) system is the pulse duration (PD). To study the effect of the PD on the remediation process, a series of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations were performed. The experimental apparatus was a cylindrical tank, packed with fine sand and partially filled by water contaminated with toluene. Toluene concentrations in water and in effluent air were measured over time during the application of PAS, which was applied with three different PD. Next, the T2VOC model, an extension of the TOUGH2 simulation program, was used to simulate the two-phase flow and transport processes for these cases. The simulation model was calibrated to the experimental results, and then run with a range of PD values. Results showed that there exists an optimal PD which yields the highest remediation efficiency. Next, it was shown that this PD may be obtained by performing a PAS pilot test and measuring the groundwater pressure response in a monitoring well. The characteristic time which describes the exponential decay of the pressure response was shown to provide an adequate estimate for the optimal PD. The estimation improved by taking a number of injection cycles.