The entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into cells is initiated by binding of the viral glycoprotein gp120-gp41 to its cellular receptor CD4. The gp120-CD4 complex formed at the cell surface undergoes conformational changes that may allow its association with an additional membrane component(s) and the eventual formation of the fusion complex. These conformational rearrangements are accompanied by immunological changes manifested by altered reactivity with monoclonal antibodies specific for the individual components and presentation of new epitopes unique to the postbinding complex. In order to analyze the structure and function of the gp120-CD4 complex, monoclonal antibodies were generated from splenocytes of BALB/c mice immunized with soluble CD4-gp120 (IIIB) molecules (J. M. Gershoni, G. Denisova, D. Raviv, N. I. Smorodinsky, and D. Buyaner, FASEB J. 7:1185-1187 1993). One of those monoclonal antibodies, CG10, was found to be strictly complex specific. Here we demonstrate that this monoclonal antibody can significantly enhance the fusion of CD4+ cells with effector cells expressing multiple HIV-1 envelopes. Both T-cell-line-tropic and macrophage- tropic envelope-mediated cell fusion were enhanced, albeit at different optimal doses. Furthermore, infection of HeLa CD4+ (MAGI) cells by HIV-1 LAI, ELI1, and ELI2 strains was increased two- to fourfold in the presence of CG10 monoclonal antibodies, suggesting an effect on vital entry. These findings indicate the existence of a novel, conserved CD4-gp120 intermediate structure that plays an important role in HIV-1 cell fusion.