Mitoxantrone (Mito) is presently used in an increasing number of malignancies including leukemias, breast carcinomas and solid tumors. With it has come increased incidence of post remission cytopenias and delayed engraftment following autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). We evaluated engraftment in 18 patients who underwent allogeneic BMT (allo-BMT) following a preparative regimen that included high dose Mito (60 mg m2). Sixteen patients with malignant disease (AML 10, ALL 3, CML 2, MDS 1) and two with non-malignant disease (SCID 1, osteopetrosis 1) underwent non-T cell depleted allo-BMT. Fourteen patients with malignancies were transplanted at an advanced stage of disease while only two patients were standard risk patients. Of the 18 patients, 12 were females and six males, with a median age of 30.5 (0.3-48) years. Nine patients, (breast cancer 3, malignant lymphoma 4 and AML 2), who underwent ABMT following preparative regimens with comparable doses of Mito, served as controls. Engraftment following allo-BMT was normal and not statistically different from engraftment following ABMT. Five patients, who underwent allo-BMT, developed > grade II acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) and two developed chronic GVHD. After a median follow up of 28 (6-42) months, five patients are alive (one with disease). In summary, engraftment following high dose Mito and allo-BMT is not statistically different from engraftment following ABMT. Controlled studies with a larger group of standard risk patients are needed to elucidate the role of Mito in conditioning regimens pre-BMT.
- Bone marrow transplantation