Since the work of McCay in 1935, demonstrating the effect of energy restricted diet on the lifespan of rats, many studies have confirmed these findings in different species. Several mechanisms have been suggested, including among others, growth retardation, diminished apoptosis, decreased oxidative damage, altered glucose utilization, changes in gene expression, enhanced stress responsiveness and hormesis. There is some evidence that energy restriction (ER) exerts important metabolic effects on the aging process and longevity through intra- and intercellular signal transduction transmitters, with several signaling pathways mediating its beneficial action.
- Energy restriction
- Signal transduction