Endocrine and Metabolic Disturbances in Survivors of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Childhood and Adolescence

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Background/Aims: The objective was to evaluate endocrine complications in survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) performed during childhood. Methods: Endocrine dysfunction and metabolic syndrome parameters were assessed by chart review of 178 childhood HSCT survivors (median age at evaluation, 15.5 [range: 3.8-29.8] years; median follow-up, 8.5 [range: 2-23.4] years). Results: The following statistically significant associations were identified (p < 0.05 for all): growth hormone deficiency (17.4%) was associated with cranial/craniospinal irradiation, total body irradiation (TBI), allogeneic HSCT, and longer follow-up. Short adult stature (23.3% of patients who had attained adult height) was associated with cranial/craniospinal irradiation and, in females, with younger age at HSCT. Primary gonadal failure was more prevalent in females (52.6 vs. 24.1%), and was associated with TBI in males and with a primary diagnosis of hematological malignancy in females. Hypothyroidism (25.2%) was associated with previous neck/mediastinal irradiation. Metabolic disturbances included obesity (3.9%), type 2 diabetes (2.2%), impaired glucose tolerance (2.8%), and dyslipidemia (18.5%). Dyslipidemia was associated with a primary diagnosis of hematological malignancy, TBI, and a positive family history of dyslipidemia. Endocrine dysfunction was less frequent in patients who had received fludarabine. Conclusions: Patients after HSCT require long-term surveillance for the detection of endocrine and metabolic disorders. Nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens may reduce the incidence of these complications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)108-121
Number of pages14
JournalHormone Research in Paediatrics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2018


  • Children and adolescents
  • Endocrine dysfunction after bone marrow transplant
  • Metabolic syndrome


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