Emerging Manifestations of Cesarean Scar Defect in Reproductive-aged Women

Togas Tulandi*, Aviad Cohen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cesarean scar defects and its clinical manifestations in reproductive-aged women. We performed a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement using keywords of “cesarean scar defect, uterine scar defect, uterine diverticulum niche, isthmocele, pouch, or sacculation” and their combination. Thirty-two trials met the inclusion criteria. Cesarean scar defects are commonly found on ultrasound examination (24%–88%). Their presence could be asymptomatic or related to postmenstrual spotting, postmenstrual bleeding, or infertility. The prevalence of this condition is related to the number of cesarean deliveries. Hysteroscopic repair of a cesarean scar defect or isthmoplasty is associated with an improvement in uterine bleeding in 59% to 100% of cases and a pregnancy rate of 77.8% to 100%. An improvement in uterine bleeding after vaginal repair occurred in 89% to 93.5% of cases. Laparoscopic repair led to uterine bleeding improvement in 86% of cases and a pregnancy rate of 86%. The association between cesarean scar defect and infertility, pelvic pain, and dysmenorrhea require more studies. Treatment of uterine scar defects should be performed after eliminating other causes of postmenstrual bleeding or infertility. Hysteroscopic isthmoplasty appears to be the most popular treatment. However, in the absence of randomized trials, the efficacy of different surgical approaches remains to be seen. Until we have concrete evidence, the treatment should be reserved for selective cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)893-902
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Cesarean scar defect
  • Isthmocele
  • Niche
  • Uterine diverticulum
  • Uterine sacculation
  • Uterine scar defect


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