Electroplating of amorphous thin films of tungsten/nickel alloys

O. Younes, L. Zhu, Y. Rosenberg, Y. Shacham-Diamand, E. Gileadi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

150 Scopus citations


The electroplating of amorphous Ni/W alloys is described. The aqueous plating solution consists of NiSO4, Na2WO4, and Na3Cit at pH = 8.0. The bath is operated at room temperature. By avoiding the use of NH4OH or any ammonium salt, it was possible to prepare alloys containing up to 50 a/o (76 w/o) W. XRD measurements revealed that amorphous alloys were obtained when the concentration of W in the alloy is 20-40 a/o. At lower concentrations of W the fcc substitutional solid solution Ni(1-x)Wx was formed. At higher concentration, an orthorhombic crystal structure corresponding to a 1/1 Ni/W alloy was observed. SEM and STM measurements supported the existence of the amorphous phase. The conditions under which amorphous alloys are expected to be formed preferentially are discussed. Thin films of the amorphous phase were prepared reproducibly at any tungsten concentration in the above range. Therefore, these alloys can be used for barrier or capping layers in the microelectronic industry for ULSI and MEMS applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8270-8275
Number of pages6
Issue number26
StatePublished - 25 Dec 2001


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