The ferroelectric domain structures of periodically poled KTiOPO4 and two-dimensional short range ordered poled LiNbO3 crystals are determined non-invasively by interferometric measurements of the electro-optically induced phase retardation. Owing to the sign reversal of the electro-optical coefficients upon domain inversion, a π phase shift is observed for the inverted domains. The microscopic setup provides diffraction-limited spatial resolution allowing us to reveal the nonlinear and electro-optical modulation patterns in ferroelectric crystals in a non-destructive manner and to determine the poling period, duty cycle and short-range order as well as detect local defects in the domain structure. Conversely, knowing the ferroelectric domain structure, one can use electro-optical microscopy so as to infer the distribution of the electric field therein. The ferroelectric domain structure of 1D periodically poled KTiOPO4 and 2D short-range ordered poled LiNbO3 crystals are probed non-invasively by interferometric microscopy measurements of the electro-optically induced phase retardation with diffraction limited spatial resolution. The nonlinear and electro-optic modulation patterns of these crystals are revealed in a non-destructive manner, together with their poling period, duty cycle, and short-range order, while local defects inside the domain structure can be detected.
- Nonlinear optical microscopy
- Periodically and quasi-periodically poled ferroelectric crystals
- Phase measurements
- Pockels effect