EHDs [EH (Eps15 homology)-domain-containing proteins] participate in different stages of endocytosis. EHD2 is a plasma-membrane-associated EHD which regulates trafficking from the plasma membrane and recycling. EHD2 has a role in nucleotidedependent membrane remodelling and its ATP-binding domain is involved in dimerization, which creates a membrane-binding region. Nucleotide binding is important for association of EHD2 with the plasma membrane, since a nucleotide-free mutant (EHD2 T72A) failed to associate. To elucidate the possible function of EHD2 during endocytic trafficking, we attempted to unravel proteins that interact with EHD2, using the yeast two-hybrid system. A novel interaction was found between EHD2 and Nek3 [NIMA (never in mitosis in Aspergillus nidulans)-related kinase 3], a serine/threonine kinase. EHD2 was also found in association with Vav1, a Nek3-regulated GEF (guanine-nucleotide- exchange factor) for Rho GTPases. Since Vav1 regulates Rac1 activity and promotes actin polymerization, the impact of overexpression ofEHD2on Rac1 activitywas tested. The results indicated that wt (wild-type) EHD2, but not its P-loop mutants, reduced Rac1 activity. The inhibitory effect of EHD2 overexpression was partially rescued by co-expression of Rac1 as measured using a cholera toxin trafficking assay. The results of the present study strongly indicate that EHD2 regulates trafficking from the plasma membrane by controlling Rac1 activity.
- Eps15 homology (EH)-domain-containing protein 2 (EHD2)
- Rac1 activity