Efficacy of prenatal ultrasonography in confirmed club foot

D. Keret, E. Ezra, F. Lokiec, S. Hayek, E. Segev, S. Wientroub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Club foot can be diagnosed by ultrasound of the fetus in more than 60% of cases. We have correlated the accuracy of the prenatal findings in 281 ultrasound surveys with the physical findings after birth and the subsequent treatment in 147 children who were born with club foot. The earliest week of gestation in which the condition was diagnosed with a high degree of confidence was the 12th and the latest was the 32nd. Not all patients were diagnosed at an early stage. In 29% of fetuses the first ultrasound examination failed to detect the deformity which subsequently became obvious at a later examination. Club foot was diagnosed between 12 and 23 weeks of gestation in 86% of children and between 24 and 32 weeks of gestation in the remaining 14%. Therefore it can be considered to be an early event in gestation (45% identified by the 17th week), a late event (45% detected between 18th and 24th weeks) or a very late event (10% recognised between 25th and 32nd weeks). We cannot exclude, however, the possibility that the late-onset groups may have been diagnosed late because earlier scans were false-negative results. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings were correlated with the physical findings after birth and showed that bilateral involvement was more common than unilateral. There was no significant relationship between the prenatal diagnosis and the postnatal therapeutic approach (i.e., conservative or surgical), or the degree of rigidity of the affected foot.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1015-1019
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series B
Issue number7
StatePublished - Sep 2002
Externally publishedYes


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