Effects of non-scheduled urine drug tests among all students at a private high school in the USA

Miriam Adelson, Shirley Linzy, Brenda Ray, Mary Jeanne Kreek, Paul Schiffman, Einat Peles*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Adolescence is the most vulnerable period, the period of greatest susceptibility to the development of addiction, for all those who are exposed to psychoactive substances. Despite a substantial experience of psychoactive usage prevention programmes (including educational work and even random urine tests), their success has so far been limited. Aims: To describe the results of educational and urine testing drug programmes among all the students and staff at in a private high school in order to identify and curtail drug use in its early stages and so save lives. Methods: During six years (April 2008 to April 2014) of studies in a private high school, urine samples for substance abuse (cannabinoids, cocaine, heroin, morphine, oxycontin, methadone, benzodiazepine, amphetamines, and ethanol) were collected and tested among all grades (9th-12th) and staff. The tests were done every few months in a random manner, and involved everyone. Positive tests were re-checked and were defined as positive if no medical prescriptions had been written. Results: During this period we performed 19 tests (about three per year) among all available students on each occasion (with numbers of participants ranging from 37 to 137). Reviewing all the 19 test times during the six years, only four students showed positive results for cannabinoids (two of them only once, the other two more than once). Conclusions: The programme results indicated minimum substance usage among adolescent children. Our finding was limited to a private high school with a selected population group, where all students and staff members agreed to participate in the programme when registering for admission to the school or, for staff members, when taking up employment. Based on our observational non-controlled study, future programmes, including controlled studies, can now be recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-54
Number of pages10
JournalHeroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2017


FundersFunder number
National Institute on Drug Abuse
University of Michigan


    • Drug use
    • Intervention programme
    • Prevention
    • Student
    • Urine test


    Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of non-scheduled urine drug tests among all students at a private high school in the USA'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this