Effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine against hospitalizations due to all rotavirus and equine-like G3P[8] genotypes in Haiti 2014–2019

Eleanor Burnett*, Stanley Juin, Mathew D. Esona, Anne Marie Desormeaux, Negar Aliabadi, Manise Pierre, Jocelyn Andre-Alboth, Eyal Leshem, Melissa D. Etheart, Roopal Patel, Patrick Dely, David Fitter, Gladzdin Jean-Denis, Mireille Kalou, Mark A. Katz, Michael D. Bowen, Yoran Grant-Greene, Jacques Boncy, Umesh D. Parashar, Gerard A. JosephJacqueline E. Tate

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Rotavirus vaccines are effective in preventing severe rotavirus. Haiti introduced 2-dose monovalent (G1P[8]) rotavirus vaccine recommended for infants at 6 and 10 weeks of age in 2014. We calculated the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine against hospitalization for acute gastroenteritis in Haiti. Methods: We enrolled children 6–59 months old admitted May 2014-September 2019 for acute watery diarrhea at any sentinel surveillance hospital. Stool was tested for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and genotyped with multiplex one-step RT-PCR assay and Sanger sequencing for stratification by genotype. We used a case-negative design where cases were children positive for rotavirus and controls were negative for rotavirus. Only children eligible for vaccination were included and a child was considered vaccinated if vaccine was given ≥ 14 days before enrollment. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios and calculated 2-dose and 1-dose vaccine effectiveness (VE) as (1 - odds ratio) * 100. Results: We included 129 (19%) positive cases and 543 (81%) negative controls. Among cases, 77 (60%) were positive for equine-like G3P[8]. Two doses of rotavirus vaccine were 66% (95% CI: 44, 80) effective against hospitalizations due to any strain of rotavirus and 64% (95% CI: 33, 81) effective against hospitalizations due to the equine-like G3P[8] genotype. Conclusions: These findings are comparable to other countries in the Americas region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first VE estimate both against the equine-like G3P[8] genotype and from a Caribbean country. Overall, these results support rotavirus vaccine use and demonstrate the importance of complete vaccination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4458-4462
Number of pages5
JournalVaccine
Volume39
Issue number32
DOIs
StatePublished - 22 Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes

Funding

FundersFunder number
Vaccine Alliance

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